سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۶

محل انتشار: چهارمین کنفرانس آسیایی و دهمین سمینار بین المللی مدیریت مشارکتی آبیاری

تعداد صفحات: ۸

نویسنده(ها):

Mohamad Gholami Beyraghdar – Member of scientific board, Amayesh Consulting Co., Mashad, IRAN

چکیده:

Before the land reformation in Iran, the farmers could manage their own traditional system of dam construction and block water, agricultural water use, and network maintenance and fair water distribution. Due to water shortage during draught years, farmers used to learn how to optimize the usage of agricultural water. The farmers had their own traditional cooperatives such as “Boneh”, “Sahra” etc (Safinejad, 1353). Good cooperation existed between farmers and the key persons of the rural societies .The government had no interference with the farmer’s cooperatives. The interference of government started when land reformation began, before the Islamic Revolution. The cooperatives formed before the Islamic revolution, were supposed to be a political program for land reformation. Farmers believed that the government forms the cooperatives for its own benefit. Water users associations formed in 1990-2000, were also unsuccessful because social and cultural issues as well as tribal and religious
conditions were not considered in details or government support was not enough to strengthen the cooperatives. Among Water users cooperatives with a successful history we can refer to Pishro cooperative in Moghan irrigation network and Water users Union in Serakhs city.
A research done by Pourzand (Pourzand,Esfand 1383) Shows that Pishro WUC in Moghan received enough cooperation and good support from local government sectors. The close cooperation and co-ordination among local authorities in Moghan and their financial and technical support to Water Users Cooperative resulted in formation of a successful cooperative. Unfortunately this cooperative deteriorated due to conflict between cooperative managers and the members. It is supposed that the lack of presurvey on social and cultural situation of the region might be a reason for deterioration . In a recent experiment in Serakhs (Amayesh consulting Co. – ۱۳۸۵), new established cooperatives could clean the water canals by free technical support received from local government sectors. These canals needed clearance since many years ago however, neither government nor individual land owners could manage to clear the canals. When Serakhs WUCs formed in 1385(2006), the cooperatives union could receive technical support and mechanical machinery from the local government and clean the irrigation canals so that they could increase water for agricultural irrigation. Both in Moghan and Serakhs experiments, the local managers of agriculture and water departments in the
region, had the same belief and sympathy as the provincial authorities toward the new established cooperatives. The above examples show that with a good cooperation and close coordination of governmental sectors, the cooperatives will be strong and sustainable in the future.