سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۶

محل انتشار: چهارمین کنفرانس آسیایی و دهمین سمینار بین المللی مدیریت مشارکتی آبیاری

تعداد صفحات: ۲۱

نویسنده(ها):

Simon Howarth – Mott MacDonald, Demeter House, Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2RS, UK
Gladys Nott – Independent Consultant, Wickham Hall, Wickham St. Paul, Halstead CO9 2PH, UK
Umesh Parajuli – Irrigation Specialist, Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Ministry of Water Resources, Kathmandu, Nepal
Nurlanbek Dzhailobayev – Water Management Specialist, 4a Toktonaliev Str.,Bishkek 720 055 Kyrgyz Republic,

چکیده:

Expectations that WUA committees would take on leadership and management roles have, in the past, been based on unrealistic assumptions about participation, representation and accountability. Users’ organisations were formed with inadequate attention to their support needs. They were often dominated by engineering and infrastructure activities so that they lapsed soon after the initial investment was complete. The establishment of the WUAs glossed over the mixed livelihood strategies of water users, the nature of relationships in socially heterogeneous communities, and the particular interests and relationships of those who were recruited as members of WUA committees. Insufficient effort and time was invested to develop skills and relationships between water users and with the WUA leadership. Technical procedures have also tended to be stereotyped and not to take account of local requirements and objectives. WUAs do not have the resources to adapt standard procedures. These problems have been observed to varying degrees on different projects, and this has often led to bad governance and erratic irrigation service delivery. Following from this diagnosis the two interventions described in this paper were designed: ‘water users’ schools’; andparticipatory monitoring and consultation for improved water distribution. These were tested and further developed during two action
research projects in seven irrigation schemes in Nepal, India and Kyrgyzstan. The guidelines developed through this action research project incorporate a participatory process of engaging with water users to understand and adapt to local circumstances, and to implement inclusive measures which support and develop skills and relationships. However, the effectiveness of the process depends on two other key conditions: an enabling environment and long term support – including the allocation of adequate resources. The experiences reported in this paper indicate the following features should be included in a strategy to improve irrigation governance and water distribution:
• Adopt a process of engagement which includes multidisciplinary studies, entry point activities to build confidence, and activities which build human and social capital and embed the WUA in the community by developing awareness and skills and building relationships.
• Identify and work with ‘Champions of Change’ at all levels – local, regional and national.
• Develop capabilities for management: locally appropriate technical, organisational and governance, and financial skills – to promote trust, transparency and legitimacy.
• Ensure long term support – including practical backstopping for water users and their organisation.
• Ensure an appropriate enabling environment: legal, financial and political.