سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۶

محل انتشار: چهارمین کنفرانس آسیایی و دهمین سمینار بین المللی مدیریت مشارکتی آبیاری

تعداد صفحات: ۱۳

نویسنده(ها):

DK Paul – Principal Scientist (IWM), ICAR, Ministry of Agriculture, India

چکیده:

Irrigation has helped convert rainfed lands into productive cultivable tracts in India but management of water has suffered due to lack of proper operation and maintenance of the system. Even after establishment of Command Area Development Agencies (CADA, since 1974) performance of the system is still poor and resulted in half hearted adoption of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The CADA Programme was taken up in Mahanadi Delta Stage-I Project, at the lower Mahanadi River Basin in 1976- 77.
The CADA took up ‘On Farm Development’ (OFD) works of construction of field channels, field drains, land leveling & shaping, reclamation of waterlogged areas, enforcement of rotational system, realignment of field boundaries and consolidation of holding, supply of crop production inputs, introduction of suitable cropping pattern and services like credit, extension. The programme also covered ground water development
through conjunctive use for efficient operation of the irrigation system upto the outlets. The programme is under implementation for more than 25 years and a sum US $ 9.0 ml was spent. A study was taken up by MOWR to assess the achievements of OFD and come out with pragmatic suggestions for optimum results. The paper presents the status of PIM in the Mahanadi Delta Project with respect of the irrigation system, CAD
activities, agro-climatic and socio-economic parameters, conjunctive use of water, agricultural performance, environmental impact, benefit cost ratio and recommends remedial measures. The irrigation system comprises of 5 canals taking off from Mahanadi and Birupa Barrages covering 4 districts and 27 community blocks with a culturable command area of 1,67,000 ha (presently revised to 1,83,400 ha). A number of tributaries and drainage channels forms the drainage system (9000 sq.km) comprising of main, secondary and link drains with out fall,. A total of 44,872 ha is waterlogged of which 32,273 and 12599 ha are seasonal and perennial type with 1671 ha as marshy land. The maximum annual yield is assessed to be 89,593 MCM, with minimum and average of 1880 and 51,061 MCM. The designed average irrigation requirement is assessed to be 3315 MCM (331.5 T ham) with dependable irrigation requirement of 2527.5 MCM with 21.0 MCM as the requirement for industrial and other uses. Seepage loss is assessed to be 36.3 and 22.9% in main canal and distribution system where as the field application and total conveyance losses are 15 and 59.2% respectively. The efficiency of conveyance and irrigation are 40.8 and 34.7% respectively. In pursuance to the National Water Policy (1987) the State Govt. of Orissa adopted the PIM in the “State Water Policy 1987” and provided legal back up, through Pani Panchayat Act 2002. In the beginning 4 pilot projects on PIM were launched in the first phase (1996) and later on 50 Pani Panchayats were formed and registered as legal bodies and 51% of the total irrigation potential created has been covered under PIM and handled more than 153 nos. of Pani Panchayats (WUAs). and remaining 49% would be covered by 2007.