سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۶

محل انتشار: دهمین کنگره ملی خوردگی ایران

تعداد صفحات: ۸

نویسنده(ها):

J A Richardson – Anticorrosion Consulting Visiting Professor, Corrosion & Protection Centre, University ofManchester

چکیده:

The petrochemical/ chemical industries range from oil refining. through petrochemicals and commodity chemicals, to fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
The industry strives to create value through new and improved products and processes, increased energy/ resource efficiency and improved manufacturing performance, while complying with societal safety, health and environmental (SHE) expectations and regulation, which preclude loss ofcontainment incidents.
Industry equipment operates over wide ranges of temperature and pressure as well as in a wide range ofcorrosive environments. Hydrocarbons are stored at extremely low, sub-zero temperatures, while furnace tubes operate at temperatures around 1000°C. Crude oil is distilled at atmospheric pressure, or even under vacuum, while hydro-crackers and ammonia! methanol converters operate in the 200-300 bar range, and some processes for themanu.:tacture ofLDPE operate at pressures as high as 3000 bar. Design codes for industry equipment should protect against mechanical failure due to ductile overload, brittle fracture, fatigue and creep. However, industry equipment is also vulnerable to the full range of corrosion! wear risks during operation. Major industry
incidents have commonly arisen from materials! corrosion failures, and periodic surveys reveal that environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) is the commonest cause of corrosion failure in the industry .