سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۳
محل انتشار: هشتمین کنگره تغذیه ایران
تعداد صفحات: ۷
OSMAN GALAL – SCHOOL OF PUBLC HEALTH, University of California, Los Angeles(UCLA) Los Angels, CA, U.S.A
It is accepted that access to both food and education in a basic human right and in 2000 all member states of the United Nations committed themselves to attaining universal primary education and eradicating hunger. Furtheremore primary education, especially for girls, is considered the most effective development tool. The present paper will review the literature concerning the eggect of food on children’s school performance. It will consider the following as school performance measures: enrollment, attendance, tardiness, classroom behavior, cognition, grade repetition, attainment levels and drop out. The present review concers school-aged children (under 16 years). The presentation will discuss associations between school performance and nutrition and then possible mechanism linking school meals to school attainment levels. Despite the international acknowledgement of the importance of education, it is estimated that in developing countries as many as 26% of boys and 30% of girls of primary school age are not attending school. A futher 11% of children attending school do nit reach grade five. Children’s academic performance is known to be affected by the three main areas of influence: the quality of the school (for example facilities, teaching quality and allocated teaching time), family characteristics such as sicioeconomic states, parent’s educational level and attitude to school and child characteristics. Children’s aptitude , motivation and behavior can all affect attainment levels. For many years it has been recognized that child health and nutritional status may also be important. There is reasonably good evidence that early childhood severe clinical malnutrition, moderate and severe stunting (;ow height for age) and underweight and iron deficiency anemia are associated with poor cognitive development, behavior and academic attainment in later chilhood. This presentation will discuss whether the food in quality, quantity or timing of eating contributes to the apparent failure of education in many school – aged children. More importantly can the provision of food improve school performance?