سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۵
محل انتشار: سومین کنگره بین المللی بهداشت، درمان و مدیریت بحران در حوادث غیرمترقبه
تعداد صفحات: ۱
Sahar Motallebi – Secretariat for Health & Risk Management in Disaster, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, I.R.Iran
Introduction: Passing through the big scale disasters, at the phase of loss and restoration of essential services (first week), through relative stability stage (first month) and to the stage of return to normality (several months), one of the major issues is sheltering for large displaced population in camp situation. All efforts are aimed to meet the minimum standards of life in which health of population (according to the holistic approach of WHO: Physical, mental and spiritual well-being and not merely absence of diseases) would not be threatened. Purpose of this paper: Aim of this paper is to introduce the nature friendly methods of designing semi permanent shelters in camp situations adapted from lessons learnt of recent disasters in Middle East and South Asia. Findings: Through the post emergency situation, accommodation of displaced people shows the following transition patterns: temporary, semi permanent and permanent sheltering system. In aftermath of disasters, passing through each phase to the next one is highly dependent on the scale of the disaster, location, time and capability of the disaster management setting in charge. This not also involves the different layers of governing system through policies at micro and macro level but also interest groups may play critical roles; for instance construction companies. The quality and length of this passage period has short and long term impacts on the health and life style of affected population and related societies, which may add to the burden of unwanted event. Conclusion: Designing and implementing the semi-permanent sheltering system compatible with natural features of area has high importance especially in prolonged phases in undesired climate-which commonly happens in low income countries- can be more adaptable with minimum health standards, and more cost benefit, with usage of natural local materials such as rice paddies, palm leaves for roves etc, and modified spacing models with minor architectural correction even in a simple tent based shelters, which counts on the direction of local wind flows to provide the cheapest ventilation system for camp situation or adjusted height of shelters. In addition these types of interventions may create job opportunities for the affected community rather than making the construction product companies richer with installation of high expense conex based shelters, while economic instability, gross loss and inflation are major problems in disastrous area which requires immediate and long term solutions.