سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۶

محل انتشار: سمینار بین المللی تاریخ آبیاری و زهکشی

تعداد صفحات: ۱۴

نویسنده(ها):

Bijan Farhangi – Senior expert-LAR consulting Eng. Co

چکیده:

The ancient land of Iran, with its enduring civilization, is recognized by the world as a cradle of culture and civilization. Her intellectuals founded, over the centuries, great traditions of philosophy, science, art and craft, as well as establishing moral values that led to a long-lasting and harmonious relationship between the individual and society. It is self-evident that in the development of an ideology based on the three pillars of
“auspicious thoughts, actions, and dialogues”, there exists and implicit set of magnificent spiritual guidelines.
The purpose of compiling this Paper is presentation of the historical values of the ancient hydro-structures of Iran. In the following aspects:
Water mills, an Iranian architectural initiative in the expoitation of Hydropower. – Water supply and physical water treatment in 3300 years old Choqa-Zanbil Ziggurat-A brilliant example the Iranian’s ingenuity. Ancient weirs in Iran. Qanats (subterranean caral,an eternal saga of man defying aggressive elements, of nature in desert. Water mills, one of the skills of ancient Iranians was to make use of the water’s hidden
power to rotate the stones of the watermills. The watermills were powered by the river currents, springs or Qanats. A conduit just before the mill shaft would act as a bypass when the mill was not in operation. The mill shaft semi conical in shape and its diameter reduces from top to bottom. This shaft can be plugged by a wooden device which is accessible through a narrow gallery from inside the mill.
Water supply and physical water treatment in in choqazanbil Ziggurat, The Elamite temple of Choqa-Zanbil, otherwise known as Dur-Tash, is located on a Dur-un rash high mound on the bank of the river Dez, a tributary of the Karun, and was built in 1250
B.C. (ie. 3300 years ago) by the Elamite king Untash-Gal for the Elamite deity “Inshushinak”.
By the order of Dur-Untash Gal, the Elamite king (1245-1265 B.C.) a 50 km loncanal was excavated to transfer water from the Karkheh River, on the west of Susa, to a sedimentation basin and then the town itself. The remains of a large excavated reservoir and a basin can be seen outside the exterior walls of the Dur-Untash town. The water used to be de-silted in the reservoir and then transferred via a series of canals to the basin where it, could be taken by the people. Ancient weirs in Iran, Scientific studies carried out have indicated that early Iranians were particularly concerned with three factors: dam location, characteristics of the dam foundation, and construction materials. In all the locations where ancient weirs were built, technical aspects including location and type have been well considered. Factors such as the nature of topography, river flows, availability of construction materials and the method of river diversion during weir construction were always taken into account. Qanats, The Qanat, or chain-well, was a Persian hydraulic technique par excellence. It is a method for tapping deep groundwater without the use of lifting devices, by sinking a series of wells and linking them underground. The technique found widespread use inancient times to serve urban water supply systems.The Iranian artisan, by adapting himself to his surrounding environment, managed to obtain the water, he needed to have a prosperous life. Many villages were built because of the Qanat. The Qanat is thus a memento in the heart of the desert as a symbol of the eternal battle of Man with his harsh surrounding environment.